Hydraulic lab

FLUID MECHANICS LAB

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Wind Tunnel HD-170

An “Eiffel” type open wind tunnel used to demonstrate and measure the aerodynamic properties of various mod-els. For this purpose, air is drawn in from the environment and accelerated. The air should flows around a model, such as an aerofoil, in a measuring section. The air is then decelerated in a diffuser and pumped back into the open by a fan. The carefully designed nozzle contour and a flow straightener ensure a uniform velocity distribution with little turbulence in the closed measuring section. The flow cross-section of the measuring section square. The built-in axial fan and a variable-speed drive is characterized by an energy-efficient operation at high efficiency. Air ve-locities of up to 34 m/s can be reached in this open wind tunnel. The trainer is equipped with an electronic two-component force sensor. Lift and drag are detected and displayed digitally. The air velocity in the measuring sec-tion is displayed on the inclined tube manometer. The 16 tube manometer is used for measuring the pressure distri-bution on bodies. By using the system for data acquisition, the measured values for velocity, forces, moment, dis-placement/angle, and differential pressure can be transferred to a PC where they can be analyzed with the software. Extensive accessories allow a variety of experiments, for example lift measurements, pressure distributions, bound-ary layer analysis or visualization of streamlines available as optional accessories.

Pelton Turbine Apparatus HM-187

The experimental unit consist of an impeller. A needle nozzle used as control device, a band brake for loading the turbine and a housing with the transparent front panel. The transparent cover enables to observe the water flow, the impeller and the nozzle during operation. The nozzle cross section and thus the flow are modified by adjusting the nozzle needle.

HD-150.21 KAPLAN TURBINE

HD 150.21 is designed for demonstrating and studying the be-havior and operational characteristics as a Kaplan turbine . It is robustly constructed and intended for repeated use in hydraulics teaching laboratory. This apparatus emulates a small scale installation of a Kaplan turbine. The pitch angle of the turbine impeller blades may be varied manually by the user,. The apparatus is designed to work with the hydraulic bench HD 150. Tachometer is supplied to measure the turbine rotational speed. The apparatus is mounted on a bench support on a robust stove enameled steel frame mounted on castors equipped with storage tank , centrifugal pump, power control box and rotameter all built in a steel frame. A moulded water tank capacity of 320 liters is provided made of MDPE.

HD-139 Ground Water Flow Unit

The apparatus is used for three dimensional investigations of ground water flows. The apparatus consists of a tank in which sand can be filled, and various models such as cylindrical and rectangular rings can be placed on the sand bed. The front wall of the tank is transparent for the visualization of various processes. The tank consists of two horizontal perforated tubes connected to supply line via two valves and have the provision to be operated separately via valves. The tank also have two open seam tubes which acts as wells for the investigations of various extractions and these walls have the provision to be activated separately via valves. Different models are provided for the study of excavation pits. At the bottom of the tank there are 19 tappings in the base of the tank arranged in a cruciform configuration and are connected to a multi-tube piezometer on the side of the tank. These indicate the profile of the water table in the sand.

HD-160 EXPERIMENTAL FLUME

The experimental flume HD 160 with a closed water circuit has a cross-section of 309x450mm. The length of the experi-mental section is between 5m and . The side walls of the experimental section are made of tempered glass, which allows excellent observation of the experiments. All components that come into contact with water are made of corrosion-resistant materials (stainless steel). The inlet element is designed so that the flow enters the experimental section with very little turbulence. The discharge can be directly measured with the help of electromagnetic flow meter. The inclination of the experimental flume can be finely adjusted to allow simulation of slope and to create a uniform flow at a constant discharge depth.

FLUID PROPERTIES & HYDROSTATIC BENCH

The Properties of Fluids and Hydrostatics Bench are designed to demonstrate the properties of fluids and their behavior under hydrostatic conditions (fluid at rest). This allows students to develop an understanding and knowledge of a wide range of fundamental principles and techniques, before studying fluids in motion. A variety of measuring devices is incorporated, either fastened to the back of the bench or freestanding. Water is stored in a stainless steel tank situated at the base of the unit. The water can be transferred by centrifugal pump, either to an elevated open storage tank connected to a number of glass tubes for

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP MULTI STAGE (MULTISTAGE, VARIABLE SPEED, SERIES AND PARALLEL)

The present Centrifugal Pump Test Rig is a selfcontained unit operated on closed circuit basis containing a sump tank. The set-up consists of two Centrifugal pumps. Both pump are coupled with individual Motors. Speed Control facility is provided to vary the RPM of motor. RPM Indicator with Proximity sensor indicates the RPM of Pump. Pipeline and valve arrangement provided enables the user to operate the test rig either in single pump operation, parallel mode or in series mode. Flow of water is measured by using measuring tank and stopwatch. Vacuum & Pressure gauges are fitted on suction line and delivery line of each pump to measure the pressure

IMPACT OF JET ON VANES

The setup consists of a clear Acrylic fabrication section. Water is fed through a nozzle and discharged vertically to strike a target carried on a stem, which extends through the cover. A weight carrier is mounted on the upper end of the stem. The dead weight of the moving parts is counter balanced by a compression spring. The vertical force exerted on the target plate is measured for applied weights. Two targets are provided with the setup (flat plate and hemispherical cup)

HD-152 Potential Flow

The laminar, two-dimensional flow in the unit is a good approximation of the flow of ideal fluids: the potential flow. All physical systems described with the Laplace equation can be demonstrated with potential flow. This includes current and thermal flows as well as magnetic flux. The core element of the trainer is a classic Hele-Shaw cell with additional water connections for sources and sinks. The laminar, two-dimensional flow is achieved by water flowing at low velocity in a narrow gap between two parallel glass plates. The parallel flow generated in this way is non-vortical and can be regarded as potential flow. Sources and sinks are generated via eight water connections in the bottom glass plate. The streamlines are displayed on the glass plate by injecting a contrast medium (ink). In experiments the flow around bodies is demonstrated by inserting models into the parallel flow. Interchangeable models such as a cylinder, guide vane profile or nozzle contour are included. To model the flow without models, it is possible to overlay parallel flow, sources, sinks and dipoles as required. This allows the demonstration of the formation of Rankine halfbodies. The water flow rate and the quantity of contrast medium injected can be adjusted by using valves. The water connections are also activated by valves and can be combined as required.

HD-150.21 Visualization of A Stream Lines in An Open Channel

Unit can be used to visualize flow around drag bodies and flow phenomena in open channels. Either a drag body or weir is fixed in the experimental flume. The streamlines are made visible by injecting a contrast medium. The experimental flume is made of transparent material so that the streamlines and the formation of vortices can easily be observed. The water level in the experimental flume can be adjusted via a sluice gate at the inlet and via a weir at the outlet. There are two weirs and four different drag bodies available for the experiments. A stabilizer ensures an even and nonvertical flow of water. The experimental unit is positioned easily and securely on the work surface of the Hydraulic Bench, base module. The water is supplied by Hydraulic Bench. Alternatively, the experimental unit can be operated by the laboratory supply.

HD-150 Hydraulic Bench

Hydraulic Bench provides the basic equipment for individual experiments: The supply of water in the closed circuit; the determination of volumetric flow rate and the positioning of the experimental unit on the working surface of the base module and the collection of dripping water. The closed water circuit consists of the underlying storage tank with a powerful submersible pump and the measuring tank arranged above, in which the returning water is collected. The measuring tank is stepped, for larger and smaller volumetric flow rates. A measuring beaker is used for very small volumetric flow rates. The volumetric flow rates are measured using a stopwatch. The top work surface enables the various experimental units to be easily and safely positioned.

HD-150.12 Horizontal Flow From a Tank

The experimental unit includes a transparent tank, a point gauge and a panel for visualizing the jet paths. An interchangeable insert is installed in the tank’s water outlet to facilitate the investigation of various openings. Four inserts with different diameters and contours are provided along with the unit. To visualise the trajectory, the issued water jet is measured via a point gauge that consists of movable rods. The rods are positioned depending on the profile of the water jet. This results in a trajectory that is transferred to the panel. The tank contains an adjustable overflow and a scale. In this way, a precise adjustment and accurate reading of the fill level are possible. The experimental unit is positioned easily and securely on the work surface of the Hydraulic Bench base module. The water is supplied and the flow rate measured by Hydraulic Bench. Alternatively, the experimental unit can be operated by the laboratory supply.

TF-110 Experimental Flume (5Meter)

This experimental and demonstration apparatus consists of an open channel of rectangular cross section supported at each end by frames. The channel walls are made from clear acrylic plastic so that full visibility of the flow characteristics can be achieved. A number of test models are provided . This Flow Channel provides a low cost experiment with accuracy comparable with larger scale channel investigations. The working section of the channel is 309 x 450 x 5000 mm ( W x H x L ).

HM-112 Discharge Through Venturi & Orifice meter

The apparatus consists of two pipelines emerging out from a common manifold. One pipe line contains a Venturimeter and other contains an Orifice. The pressure tapings from the Venturimeter and orifice meter are taken to differential manometer to measure pressure difference. The Venturimeter and Orificemeter are connected in parallel and any one of them can be put in operation by operating valves provided at the downstream. The flow can also be regulated by these valves. Present set-up is self-contained water re-circulating unit, provided with a sump tank and a centrifugal pump etc. Flow control valve and bypass valve are fitted in water line to conduct the experiment on different flow rates. Flow rate of water is measured with the help of measuring tank and stop watch

HD-156 Water Hammer & Surge Chamber

Unit is used to generate and visualize water hammer in pipes and to demonstrate how a surge chamber works. The trainer contains a pipe section with a ball valve and a surge chamber and a second pipe section with a solenoid valve. The equipment is free-standing and comprises two stainless steel test pipes connected to a constant head tank with the necessary connections to the hydraulic bench provided with the setup. Pipe surge demonstrations are conducted using the first test pipe, which incorporates a transparent surge shaft and lever operated valve at the discharge end. An additional valve downstream enables the flow through the test pipe to be varied before closing the lever operated valve. A scale on the surge shaft enables the low speed transients in water level to be measured.

SUBMERSIBLE PUMP TEST RIG HM-146

The present submersible pump test rig is a self contained unit operated on closed circuit basis containing a sump tank. The set up consist of a submersible pump, which is mounted horizontaliy with sump tank. Flow of fluid is measured by using measuring tank & stop watch.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP TEST RIG (Variable Speed With DC Motor) HM-142

The apparatus should be a self-contained unit operated on close circuit basis containing a sump tank. The setup should consist of a centrifugal pump coupled with a DC motor. Power input to the DC motor should varied by means of thyristor controlled DC drive to vary the RPM of motor. A RPM indicator with proximity sensor indicates the RPM of pump. Flow of water should be measured by using measuring tank and stop watch. Vaccum gauge should be fitted on suction line and pressure gauge should be fitted on delivery line to measure the pressure .

CAVITATION APPARATUS HM-115

The apparatus should be able to demonstrate the phenomena of cavitation. The setup should consist of attest section made of acrylic convergent and divergent section. Pressure tapings at appropriate position should be provided. The test section should have one control valve at upstream side to regulate the water flow rate. Two pressure gauges should be connected to these taping to give the pressure read out at the time of flow passing through this test section. The setup should be self-contained water recirculating unit provided with a sump tank and a centrifugal pump etc. Flow control valve and by-pass valve should be fitted in water line to conduct the experiment on different flow rates. Flow rate of water should be measured with the help of measuring tank and stop watch.

HYDRO STATIC PRESSURE APPARATUS HM-116

A fabricated quadrant is mounted on a balance arm which pivots on knife edges. The knife edges coincide with the centre of arc of the quadrant. Thus, of the hydrostatic forces acting on the quadrant when immersed in water, only the force on the rectangular end face gives rise to a moment about the knife edges (forces on the curved surfaces resolve through the pivot and have no effect on the moment). This moment is counteracted by variable weights at a fixed distance from the pivot allowing the magnitude and position of the hydrostatic force to be determined for different water depths. The quadrant can be operated with the vertical end face partially or fully submerged, allowing the difference in theory to be investigated. The balance arm incorporates a weight hanger for the weights supplied and an adjustable counterbalance weight to ensure that the balance arm is horizontal before Immersing the quadrant in water. The assembled balance arm is mounted on top of a clear acrylic tank which may be levelled by adjusting three screwed feet. Correct alignment is indicated on a circular spirit level mounted on the base of the tank. A level indicator attached to the side of the tank shows when the balance arm is horizontal. Water is admitted to the top of the tank by a flexible tube and may be drained through a cock in the side of the tank. The water level is indicated on a scale on the side of the quadrant.

OPEN FLOW CHANNEL APPARATUS (Code:-TF-110-D)

This experimental and demonstration apparatus consists of an open channel of rectangular cross section supported at each end by frames. The channel walls are made from clear acrylic plastic so that full visibility of the flow characteristics can be achieved. A number of test models are provided . This Flow Channel provides a low cost experiment with accuracy comparable with larger scale channel investigations. The working section of the channel is 80 x 300 x 2500 mm ( W x H x L ).

RECIPROCATING PUMP TEST RIGVARIABLE SPEED WITH D.C MOTOR (Code:-HM-145)

The apparatus should be a self-contained unit operated on close circuit basis containing a sump tank. The setup should consist of a a double acting, single cylinder reciprocating pump coupled with a DC motor. Power input to the DC motor should varied by means of thyristor controlled DC drive to vary the RPM of motor. A RPM indicator with proximity sensor indicates the RPM of pump. Flow of water should be measured by using measuring tank and stop watch. Vaccum gauge should be fitted on suction line and pressure gauge should be fitted on delivery line to measure the pressure .

PITOT TUBE SETUP (Code:-HM-114)

The Pitot tube is used to measure the local velocity at a given point in the flow stress. A Pitot Tube of standard design made up of copper /S.S is supplied & is fixed below vernies scale. The vernies scale is capable to measure the position of pitot tube in transparent section. The pipe has a flow control valve to regulate the flow. An U-tube Manometer is provided to determine the velocity head. Present setup is self contained water re-circulating unit, provided with a sump tank and a centrifugal pump etc. flow control valve and by pass valve are fitted in water line to conduct the experiment on different flow rates. Flow rate of water is measured with the help of measuring tank and stop watch.

DISCHARGE OVER NOTCHES (Code:-HM-103)

The apparatus consists of a channel having sufficient length & width in which water is supplied from the bottom. Required notch is fitted at one end of this channel. A pointer gauge with vernier scale is fitted to measure the height of fluid in flow channel. Arrangment for fixing interchangeable notch is made. Set of three notches is made. Set of three notches, i.e. rectangular notch, 60V notch 45V notch is provided along with the set up. Present setup is self contained water re-circulating unit, provided with a sump tank and a centrifugal pump etc. flow control valve and by pass valve are fitted in water line to conduct the experiment on different flow rates. Flow rate of water is measured with the help of measuring tank and stop watch.

REYNOLD’S APPARATUS (Code:-HM-110)

The apparatus consists of a glass tube with one end having bell mouth entrance; connected to a constant head water tank, at the other end a valve is provided to vary the flow rate. The tank is of sufficient capacity to store water. A capillary tube is introduced centrally in the bell mouth for feeding dye from a small container placed at the top of tank, through polythene tubing. By varying the rate of flow, the Reynold's number is changed. This also changes the type of flow. Visual observation of dye (Thread) will indicate the type of flow, which can be confirmed from the Reynold's number computed. Present set-up is self-contained water re-circulating unit, provided with a sump tank and a centrifugal pump etc. Flow control valve and by-pass valve are fitted in water line to conduct the experiment on different flow rate. Flow rate of water is measured with the help of measuring tank and stop watch.

BERNOULLI’S THEOREM (Code:-HM-101)

The equipment is designed and fabricated to demonstrate the Bernoulli's theorem. It consists of a test section made of acrylic. It has convergent and divergent sections. Pressure tapings are provided at different locations in convergent and divergent section. Present set-up is self-contained water re-circulating unit, provided with a sump tank, centrifugal pump etc. An arrangement is done to conduct the experiment on different flow rates. Flow rate of water is measured with the help of measuring tank and stopwatch.

LOSSES DUE TO PIPE FITTING SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT & CONTRACTION (Code:-HM-106)

The setup consists of a 1/2” bend & elbow, a sudden expansion & a sudden contraction fitting from 15mm to 25mm, ball valve & gate valve. Pressure tapings are provided at inlet & outlet of these fitting under test. A differential Manometer is fitted in the line gives pressure loss of individual fitting. Present set up is self contained water re-circulating unit, provided with a sump tank and a centrifugal pump etc. Flow control valve and a bye pass valve are fitted in water line to conduct the experiment on different flow rates. Flow rates of water is measured with the help of measuring tank and stop watch.

LOSSES DUE TO FRICTION IN PIPE LINES (Code:-HM-105)

The apparatus consists of 2 pipe of different diameters, which are connected in parallel. Pressure Tapping are provided on each pipe to measure the pressure losses with the help of a differential Manometer. Control valves are fitted on each pipe, which enable to use one pipe at a time for experiment. Present set up is self contained water re-circulating unit, provided with a sump tank and a centrifugal pump etc. Flow control valve and a bye pass valve are fitted in water line to conduct the experiment on different flow rates. Flow rates of water is measured with the help of measuring tank and stop watch.