Hydraulic lab


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The apparatus is a self-contained unit operated on close circuit basis containing a sump tank. The setup is consist of a double acting, single cylinder reciprocating pump coupled with a AC motor with swinging frame. A spring balance is connected to swinging frame of motor to determine the torque. RPM of the motor is varied with the help of AC drive . A RPM indicator with proximity sen sor indicates the RPM of pump. Flow of water is measured by using measuring tank and stop watch. Vacuum gauge is fitted on suction line and pressure gauge is fitted on delivery line to meas ure the pressure.


Air passes into the wind tunnel through a honeycomb flow straightener and a grille. It then passes into an aerodynamically designed effuser (cone) that accelerates the air in a linear manner before it moves through the working section. Finally it passes through a diffuser, then into the variable speed axial fan. The grille protects the fan from damage by loose objects. The air leaves the fan, passes through a silencer unit and then back out to atmosphere. The speed of the axial fan (and therefore the air velocity in the working section) is controlled by an electronic drive control in the separate On/ Off unit mounted on the tunnel’s associated instrument frame along with other ancillaries. Working Section The working section is of a square section with tapered chamfered corners and an acrylic roof and floor. The sides are full length acrylic panels, one side is hinged at the top and the other is removable. The whole unit is supported in an aluminium framework. Each side panel has a holder to support wind tunnel models. On the top of the working section are two Pitot devices and a wall tapping to measure the static pressure upstream and downstream of the working section.


The unit consists of an inclinable channel mounted on a frame, together with a discharge tank and recirculating pump. To commence a demonstration, sand is placed evenly along the channel bed, between the inlet tank and the overfall discharge weir. Water is circulated around the system at one of the three selectable flow rates. The channel slope is adjusted by means of a fine screw jack to which an accurate slope indicator is attached. The channel sides are transparent in order that bed profile changes can be observed and a section of one side is provided with graphical grid markings to permit quantitative assessments to be made of bedform dynamics. A water level gauge is supplied to measure the head over the channel discharge weir to deduce flow rates from a user generated calibration chart. Solid models of a bridge pier and an undershot weir are provided to demonstrate the scour effects on river beds of man-made structures.


The core element of the experimental flume with closed water circuit, with hydraulic bench as supply unit is the inclining experimental section. The side walls of the experimental section are made of acrylic, which allows excellent observation of the experiments. All components that come into contact with water are made of corrosion-resistant materials (stainless steel). The inlet element is designed so that the flow enters the experimental section with very little turbulence and no sediment can flow back. The inclination of the experimental flume can be finely adjusted to produce slope and to create a uniform flow at a constant dis-charge depth. The discharge is measured with the help of base module (supply unit).


The apparatus consists of a shallow water tight rectangular tank, approximately 2000 mm by 750 mm by 250 mm deep, which can be filled with a fine granular medium to form the experimental terrain. The tank is supported on a fabricated steel frame with mountings which allow adjustment of the inclination of the tank. Above the tank is a frame supporting an array of eight spray nozzles which are used to simulate rainfall. Valves control the number of spray nozzles in operation, enabling a moving storm to be simulated. Permeable end baffles are used to contain the granular material within the central part of the tank, thus providing inlet and outlet header compartments. Adjustable overflow pipes in the header compartments allow the hydraulic gradient across the tank to be adjusted. The lower part of the steel support frame contains a sump tank and a water circulation system which can deliver the water supply to either header compartment or to the spray nozzles. The flow rate to the spray nozzles is measured by a variable area flow meter. The central area of the tank has two 50 mm diameter outlets in the floor of the tank which can be fitted with porous tubes to represent wells. The off takes from the wells are controlled by valves which discharge into flow channels fitted with low capacity 20ºV notch calibrated weirs. An identical low capacity, calibrated 20ºV notch weir system is also used to measure the outflow rate from the catchment area. An array of pressure tapping points in the tank floor are connected to a multitube manometer to enable the water table profile to be determined. Profile gauges and impermeable elements are supplied to allow the easy construction of sheet piling, walls, structures, foundations, reservoirs, bridge pier and dams, etc. Washed silica sand graded 0.2 mm to 1.0 mm supplied as the permeable medium. Coarser material may also be used.


In a closed system filled with fluid, a thermodynamic equilibrium sets in between the fluid and its vaporised phase. The prevailing pressure is called vapour pressure. It is substance-specific and temperature-dependent. When a fluid is heated in a closed tank, the pressure increases as the temperature rises. Theoretically, the pressure increase is possible up to the critical point at which the densities of the fluid and gaseous phases are equal. Fluid and vapour are then no longer distinguishable from each other. This knowledge is applied in practice in process technology for freeze drying or pressure cooking. The experimental unit is used to demonstrate the relationship between the pressure and temperature of water in a straightforward manner. Temperatures of up to 200°C are possible for recording the vapour pressure curve. The temperature and pressure is continuously monitored via a digital temperature display and a Bourdon tube pressure gauge. A temperature limiter and pressure relief valve are fitted as safety devices and protect the system against overpressure.


The experimental flume HD 160 with a closed water circuit has a cross-section of 309x450mm. The length of the experimental section is 5m.With further addition of extension element the length can be increased up to 12.5 m The side walls of the experimental section are made of 10 mm thick tempered glass, which allows excellent observation of the experiments. The base of the experimental section (5m) is made of 10 mm thick stainless steel. All components that come into contact with water are made of corrosion-resistant materials (stainless steel). The inlet element is designed so that the flow enters the experimental section with very little turbulence. The discharge can be directly measured with the help of electromagnetic flow meter. The inclination of the experimental flume can be finely adjusted to allow simulation of slope and to create a uniform flow at a constant discharge depth. A wide selection of models, such as weirs, piers, flow-measuring flumes or a wave generator are available as accessories and ensure a comprehensive programme of experiments. Most models are quickly and safely bolted to the bottom of the experimental section.

Wind Tunnel HD-170

An “Eiffel” type open wind tunnel used to demonstrate and measure the aerodynamic properties of various mod-els. For this purpose, air is drawn in from the environment and accelerated. The air should flows around a model, such as an aerofoil, in a measuring section. The air is then decelerated in a diffuser and pumped back into the open by a fan. The carefully designed nozzle contour and a flow straightener ensure a uniform velocity distribution with little turbulence in the closed measuring section. The flow cross-section of the measuring section square. The built-in axial fan and a variable-speed drive is characterized by an energy-efficient operation at high efficiency. Air ve-locities of up to 34 m/s can be reached in this open wind tunnel. The trainer is equipped with an electronic two-component force sensor. Lift and drag are detected and displayed digitally. The air velocity in the measuring sec-tion is displayed on the inclined tube manometer. The 16 tube manometer is used for measuring the pressure distri-bution on bodies. By using the system for data acquisition, the measured values for velocity, forces, moment, dis-placement/angle, and differential pressure can be transferred to a PC where they can be analyzed with the software. Extensive accessories allow a variety of experiments, for example lift measurements, pressure distributions, bound-ary layer analysis or visualization of streamlines available as optional accessories.

Pelton Turbine Apparatus HM-187

The experimental unit consist of an impeller. A needle nozzle used as control device, a band brake for loading the turbine and a housing with the transparent front panel. The transparent cover enables to observe the water flow, the impeller and the nozzle during operation. The nozzle cross section and thus the flow are modified by adjusting the nozzle needle.


HD 150.21 is designed for demonstrating and studying the be-havior and operational characteristics as a Kaplan turbine . It is robustly constructed and intended for repeated use in hydraulics teaching laboratory. This apparatus emulates a small scale installation of a Kaplan turbine. The pitch angle of the turbine impeller blades may be varied manually by the user,. The apparatus is designed to work with the hydraulic bench HD 150. Tachometer is supplied to measure the turbine rotational speed. The apparatus is mounted on a bench support on a robust stove enameled steel frame mounted on castors equipped with storage tank , centrifugal pump, power control box and rotameter all built in a steel frame. A moulded water tank capacity of 320 liters is provided made of MDPE.

HD-139 Ground Water Flow Unit

The apparatus is used for three dimensional investigations of ground water flows. The apparatus consists of a tank in which sand can be filled, and various models such as cylindrical and rectangular rings can be placed on the sand bed. The front wall of the tank is transparent for the visualization of various processes. The tank consists of two horizontal perforated tubes connected to supply line via two valves and have the provision to be operated separately via valves. The tank also have two open seam tubes which acts as wells for the investigations of various extractions and these walls have the provision to be activated separately via valves. Different models are provided for the study of excavation pits. At the bottom of the tank there are 19 tappings in the base of the tank arranged in a cruciform configuration and are connected to a multi-tube piezometer on the side of the tank. These indicate the profile of the water table in the sand.


The Properties of Fluids and Hydrostatics Bench are designed to demonstrate the properties of fluids and their behavior under hydrostatic conditions (fluid at rest). This allows students to develop an understanding and knowledge of a wide range of fundamental principles and techniques, before studying fluids in motion. A variety of measuring devices is incorporated, either fastened to the back of the bench or freestanding. Water is stored in a stainless steel tank situated at the base of the unit. The water can be transferred by centrifugal pump, either to an elevated open storage tank connected to a number of glass tubes for


The setup consists of a clear Acrylic fabrication section. Water is fed through a nozzle and discharged vertically to strike a target carried on a stem, which extends through the cover. A weight carrier is mounted on the upper end of the stem. The dead weight of the moving parts is counter balanced by a compression spring. The vertical force exerted on the target plate is measured for applied weights. Two targets are provided with the setup (flat plate and hemispherical cup)

HD-152 Potential Flow

The laminar, two-dimensional flow in the unit is a good approximation of the flow of ideal fluids: the potential flow. All physical systems described with the Laplace equation can be demonstrated with potential flow. This includes current and thermal flows as well as magnetic flux. The core element of the trainer is a classic Hele-Shaw cell with additional water connections for sources and sinks. The laminar, two-dimensional flow is achieved by water flowing at low velocity in a narrow gap between two parallel glass plates. The parallel flow generated in this way is non-vortical and can be regarded as potential flow. Sources and sinks are generated via eight water connections in the bottom glass plate. The streamlines are displayed on the glass plate by injecting a contrast medium (ink). In experiments the flow around bodies is demonstrated by inserting models into the parallel flow. Interchangeable models such as a cylinder, guide vane profile or nozzle contour are included. To model the flow without models, it is possible to overlay parallel flow, sources, sinks and dipoles as required. This allows the demonstration of the formation of Rankine halfbodies. The water flow rate and the quantity of contrast medium injected can be adjusted by using valves. The water connections are also activated by valves and can be combined as required.

HD-150.21 Visualization of A Stream Lines in An Open Channel

Unit can be used to visualize flow around drag bodies and flow phenomena in open channels. Either a drag body or weir is fixed in the experimental flume. The streamlines are made visible by injecting a contrast medium. The experimental flume is made of transparent material so that the streamlines and the formation of vortices can easily be observed. The water level in the experimental flume can be adjusted via a sluice gate at the inlet and via a weir at the outlet. There are two weirs and four different drag bodies available for the experiments. A stabilizer ensures an even and nonvertical flow of water. The experimental unit is positioned easily and securely on the work surface of the Hydraulic Bench, base module. The water is supplied by Hydraulic Bench. Alternatively, the experimental unit can be operated by the laboratory supply.

HD-150 Digital Hydraulic Bench (Volumetric)

Hydraulic Bench provides the basic equipment for individual experiments: The supply of water in the closed circuit; the determination of volumetric flow rate and the positioning of the experimental unit on the working surface of the base module and the collection of dripping water. The closed water circuit consists of the underlying storage tank with a powerful submersible pump and the measuring tank arranged above, in which the returning water is collected. The measuring tank is stepped, for larger and smaller volumetric flow rates. A measuring beaker is used for very small volumetric flow rates. The volumetric flow rates are measured using a stopwatch. The top work surface enables the various experimental units to be easily and safely positioned.

HD-150.12 Horizontal Flow From a Tank

The experimental unit includes a transparent tank, a point gauge and a panel for visualizing the jet paths. An interchangeable insert is installed in the tank’s water outlet to facilitate the investigation of various openings. Four inserts with different diameters and contours are provided along with the unit. To visualise the trajectory, the issued water jet is measured via a point gauge that consists of movable rods. The rods are positioned depending on the profile of the water jet. This results in a trajectory that is transferred to the panel. The tank contains an adjustable overflow and a scale. In this way, a precise adjustment and accurate reading of the fill level are possible. The experimental unit is positioned easily and securely on the work surface of the Hydraulic Bench base module. The water is supplied and the flow rate measured by Hydraulic Bench. Alternatively, the experimental unit can be operated by the laboratory supply.

HD-156 Water Hammer & Surge Chamber

Unit is used to generate and visualize water hammer in pipes and to demonstrate how a surge chamber works. The trainer contains a pipe section with a ball valve and a surge chamber and a second pipe section with a solenoid valve. The equipment is free-standing and comprises two stainless steel test pipes connected to a constant head tank with the necessary connections to the hydraulic bench provided with the setup. Pipe surge demonstrations are conducted using the first test pipe, which incorporates a transparent surge shaft and lever operated valve at the discharge end. An additional valve downstream enables the flow through the test pipe to be varied before closing the lever operated valve. A scale on the surge shaft enables the low speed transients in water level to be measured.


A fabricated quadrant is mounted on a balance arm which pivots on knife edges. The knife edges coincide with the centre of arc of the quadrant. Thus, of the hydrostatic forces acting on the quadrant when immersed in water, only the force on the rectangular end face gives rise to a moment about the knife edges (forces on the curved surfaces resolve through the pivot and have no effect on the moment). This moment is counteracted by variable weights at a fixed distance from the pivot allowing the magnitude and position of the hydrostatic force to be determined for different water depths. The quadrant can be operated with the vertical end face partially or fully submerged, allowing the difference in theory to be investigated. The balance arm incorporates a weight hanger for the weights supplied and an adjustable counterbalance weight to ensure that the balance arm is horizontal before Immersing the quadrant in water. The assembled balance arm is mounted on top of a clear acrylic tank which may be levelled by adjusting three screwed feet. Correct alignment is indicated on a circular spirit level mounted on the base of the tank. A level indicator attached to the side of the tank shows when the balance arm is horizontal. Water is admitted to the top of the tank by a flexible tube and may be drained through a cock in the side of the tank. The water level is indicated on a scale on the side of the quadrant.